What are the two major causes of abortion in sheep?
Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and Campylobacter jejuni are common causes of abortion, particularly where sheep are managed intensively leading to heavy contamination and unhygienic environments during late gestation.
What are the symptoms of toxoplasmosis in sheep?
Typically, a ewe produces a weak or stillborn lamb two to three days early, often accompanied by a small, mummified foetus. Weakly lambs do not usually survive, as they often have brain damage.
How long does it take for a sheep to abort?
Abortion occurs 7-25 days after infection. Following infection ewes mount a good immune response and seldom abort a second time due to Campylobacter.
What is sheep toxemia pregnancy?
Pregnancy toxaemia occurs when drastically low levels of glucose in the blood damage the brain and result in dehydration, kidney failure and potentially death. It usually occurs in the last weeks of pregnancy with the ewes most advanced in pregnancy affected before the rest of the flock.
How do sheep treat abortion?
Control consists of isolating all affected ewes and lambs and treating in-contact ewes with long-acting oxytetracycline or oral tetracycline. C abortus bacterins are available and reduce abortions. In parts of Europe, a modified-live vaccine is available for use. C abortus is zoonotic, but human cases are rare.
How can ewes prevent abortion?
Management methods to avoid pregnancy loss:
Set up a biosecurity program to quarantine all new animals for as long as 30 days before introduction to the farm. Keep first lambing and purchased ewes in separate areas from the rest of the flock. Keep postpartum and prepartum females in separate pastures.
Can you vaccinate sheep against toxoplasmosis?
Enzootic abortion (Chlamydia) and toxoplasma are among the most common causes of infectious abortion in ewes. Vaccines are available for both, and it is a good idea to vaccinate now, particularly for early lambers.
How does toxoplasmosis cause abortion in sheep?
Toxoplasma is a parasite causing abortion in sheep and is spread by infected cats defecating on sheep’s feed. The parasite uses sheep as an intermediate host and causes them to abort in late pregnancy or absorb the foetus if sheep are infected early in pregnancy, but has no effect on the health of the ewe.
Can toxoplasmosis cause abortion?
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the major causes of abortion in pregnant women. Most cases of abortion occur in the acute phase of infection and early pregnancy.
How do you prevent toxoplasmosis in sheep?
There are no practical medications that can cure sheep infected with toxoplasma or prevent the consequences once an animal has become infected. Following infection, sheep develop immunity to the parasite, which will protect them against disease in a subsequent pregnancy.
What causes listeriosis in sheep?
Listeriosis is caused by the contamination of feedstuffs by the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, which is widely distributed in nature and is found in soil, feedstuffs and faeces from healthy animals (Wardrope and Macleod, 1983).
What causes rotten lambs in ewes?
Toxoplasmosis (Toxo for short) is one of the most common causes of infectious abortion. Problems due to Toxo involve embryo/foetal loss, barrenness, late lambers, late abortions, weak lambs & the most sickening job of lambing – helping a ewe to lamb rotten lambs.
What causes pregnancy Toxaemia?
The principal cause of pregnancy toxemia is low blood sugar (glucose). Onset of the disease is often triggered by one of several types of stress including nutritional or inclement weather. The disease is most prevalent in ewes and does carrying two or more lambs or kids.
How do you prevent ketosis in sheep?
If a pregnant doe or ewe totally stops eating due to ketosis, her outlook declines greatly. Traditional treatments include intravenous dextrose and oral propylene glycol. Recent additions to treatment protocols may include the use of calcium, potassium, sodium bicarbonate, ionophores, flunixin, probiotics and thiamine.
What are the symptoms of ketosis in sheep?
Ewes with ketosis are lethargic and have a poor appetite for one to two weeks, generally within the last one to two weeks of pregnancy. They also tend to have poor muscle control and balance. A classic symptom is sweet-smelling (ketotic) breath. Sheep may also grind their teeth.